Do you know the pig is one of the most prolific animals in the world? A single pig can give birth to as many as 15 piglets at a time and the piglets grow very fast and will in turn reproduce as soon as they are sexually matured.
In today’s article, I will show you why you need to invest in the pig farming business and the complete guide to commercial pig farming in Nigeria.
When I was a kid, the pig business was one popular agribusiness. A lot of people engaged in the farming business, grew the pig, fattened them and transport it 500 miles or more. This is where they sell to customers in the pig farmers market.
Sadly, this cannot the same cannot be said for today as there are very few people who still remain in the business, as a matter of fact, a lot of farmers have either stopped or changed to other forms of farming business.
But do you know, the demand for pig meat is still very high in both developing and develop countries.
For a sexually matured pig to birth their young ones, you must have both the male (boar) and the females (sows).
Piggery farming in Nigeria is one lucrative farming you can do in the country. Even with a small herd, you can raise up 200 new piglets a year.
With such a number, you could make more profit than you could think of within a year if they’ve grown to the right size for sale.
However, this is not always the case, especially, when you do not get the right breed that fits your customers’ needs to rear.
How much food does a pig eat?
It’s crucial to note that a pig will eat from 6 to 8 pounds of food per day. Some foods of the pig are corn and soya beans. But a piglet eats 700 and 900 pounds of food after four to six weeks of feeding on the mother. However, this entirely depends on a lot of factors.
How long does it take to grow a pig?
Pigs will grow faster if they’re fed right and healthy and if the environment is favourable. On just pasture (greens), it takes about seven months and on other types of food, with the required nutrient you’ll need about five to six month for a piglet to grow to adult size.
Why you should invest in piggery farming in Nigeria
Unlike goat, cattle and sheep rearing, Pig farming business is quite new this day. However this does not mean that it’s not a lucrative agric business. Nevertheless, here are top 5 reasons you should consider before investing in business of pig farming.
- The mortality rate in pig farming is relatively low when compared to poultry, fish and other forms of animal farming. They’re tough animals and have the extra-ordinary ability to survive for days without food.
- Pig rearing is easy
- Since they can feed on a lot of human food, their food is readily, as a result, pig feeding is cheap and raising it is cheaper when compared to poultry or fish farming which requires selective types of food.
- Pigs possess stronger immune system. Falling sick is rare as long as they get the required vaccines and foods regularly.
- Piggery generates more returns on investment (ROI) than other forms of farming.
So will all this in mind, you may be tempted to ask, how do one start a pig farming business? Let’s dive into the complete guide to commercial pig farming in Nigeria.
Complete guide to commercial pig farming in Nigeria
1.) Acquire the knowledge
Pig rearing for beginners have proven to be quite a challenge, getting the right piece of knowledge can help you in knowing what you’ll need and how the pig farming business works. You can get knowledge from an expert, asking existing farmers, getting your hands on the information online about pig farming.
Whichever method you use, you still need to at least get the information that will tell you what you need to know and help you better prepared so that you don’t get a surprise when starting.
Other knowledge will be learned by experience.
2.) Research on cost of starting a pig farm in Nigeria (Write a piggery business plan)
Including the cost of starting a pig farm in Nigeria in a piggery business plan will go a long way in ensuring all the essential details are not left out. A standard piggery business proposal will include the business summary, market analysis, marketing plan, and the future extension of the business.
With a good business plan, it’s easier to get investors who’ll be keen on investing a large chunk of cash in your business. And the business plan will equally help put you on track when you’re deviating.
3.) Raise the required capital
When you all attained all types of knowledge, you’ll need to raise the required startup funds for the business. You can also raise funds through family and friends, by getting a bank loan or creating a partnership that’ll raise the capital that can setup and run your business successfully.
If your piggery business plan is in place, getting investors or securing a loan from the banks becomes very simple and easy.
4.) Find a location
The next step is for you to find a location you can use to farm your pig without complaint from your neighbours. This location must be a suitable one and can promote the growth of your pigs.
Growing pig close to habitable homes is usually not advisable, as the bad odour might make it unbearable for the home owners close to your pig pen. Another negative effect to building pig pens amongst homes is that the noise will be pretty disturbing to houses around it.
Instead of using a location close to home, which would cause unnecessary disturbances to your household and neighbours (except of course, your pig pen is sound proof), you can look for a farm areas far away from the neighbourhood.
You can purchase or hire the farmland according to the scale of the piggery (space for rearing, feeding, and grazing) that’ll be enough for your farming activities.
How much space do you need to raise your pigs?
The space required for starting a pig farming business is small when compared to poultry farming. According to many experts, a minimum of 20 square feet per pig, the neighbourhood in the outdoor area, where they move around freely is advised. But a minimum of 50 square feet or more will be great
For instance, starting on a small scale, you can get a 50×50 space.
Because you’re going to locate your farmland far away, it will be cheap when compared to the one you’ll get in the neighbourhood.
5.) Create a pig pen
The pig shelter or housing should be a big one. This is so important because a pig pen will save the pig from many external problems like diseases, theft, weather, and contamination.
The pig pen can be created with materials such as wood, iron, or concrete. You’ll have to choose the material that’s within your budget.
There are some things you need to put in place when creating a pig pen. One of such things is creating an effective drainage system. The drainage will ease the movement of waste material.
Some pig pen floor is made suspended with metal. This makes faeces from the pig easier to wash and the spilled water, will find their way out.
This will also help in the regulation of germs, insects breeding and other forms of diseases that may affect the pig growth and increase the chances of mortality rate.
Be sure to include a water pool in the pig pen during construction as this will further make the environment conducive and increase the chances of a healthy growth. However, the pool water should be changed regularly; else they might grow germs which will in turn negatively affect the pig.
6.) Buy the necessary pig farming equipment
The next thing to do is to buy the required equipment that will be used in the pig farm. some of which are the feeding trough for putting their food, drinkers for putting their drinking water, brooders and heat lamb, swine scrappers and other accessories. Most of the largest pig farm in Nigeria has these things on their farms.
7.) Purchase your piglet
Now that you are done with the construction of your pig pen, it’s time to get the baby pigs their new home on your farm. The piglets can be bought from an existing pig farm close to you or far away. You’ll need to buy both male and female pigs of different parents to ease and quicken reproduction of healthy babies.
At the point of buying, you should be able to clarify the following by asking to know:
- The vaccination history of the pig
- The parent breed of the piglets
- The environment of piglets
You might ask: “why is this important?” it is because it will help you to know the health status of the pig and the expected growth size.
The number of the piglets to buy will be predetermined by the size of the pig pen. Taking the space of the pig pen into consideration, you can start with the number suitable for the pig pen.
When there is enough room for the pigs, the growth of the pig will be pretty fast.
How much do piglets cost?
That’s a tough one but it might help to keep in mind that the price of the piglets will entirely depend on your business centre. But that too will be determined by the demand of the product in the market.
8.) Hire workers
Depending on the size of your farm, you’ll need extra pair of hands to help you with the work. For 100 pigs you’ll need about 4-5 workers. If you’re just starting, hiring just 1 or 2 workers will go a long way in helping you change the water, make the environment hygienic always and clear the drainage.
9.) Ask a professional for advice
For a pig farm to be truly successful, you’ll need to engage the services of a professional unless of course you are an expert yourself. Many who have decided to ignore the services of a professional have recorded more loss than those who engaged one.
Also, hiring a qualified veterinarian will help you in administering the vaccine at the right time, regular check-ups to ensure the pigs are healthy and treating the ones that are ill.
Employing a professional who offers consultancy service ensures your farm animals are always in the right health condition.
10.) Feeding of the pig
When you’re going to start a pig farm, one thing that will not be a big issue is their feeding. This is because pig eats most of the things humans eat thus eliminating need to be concerned about buying or formulating a specialized food for feeding.
However, the food must be balanced and contain all the required classes of food to speed up the process of the pigs growth..
Additionally, ensure the pig have access to water for drinking and for them to play with. Nevertheless, you should always endeavour to replace the water when it becomes too dirty to discourage the breed of insects and diseases.
11.) Market your pig
You should begin marketing your pigs before the due date you intend to sell them? Why? So that you can get the best offers even before deciding to sell them. You can approach meat sellers through word-of-the-mouth or use pork to make bacon and sausages for sale.
The cost of the pig will entirely depend on the size of the pig as pig meat is sold per kilogram.
12.) Other Management
It is evident that pig farming requires less management. But some vital things should not be overlooked. These can be done by ensuring feeders contain feed, the water run always and provision of security to ensure no pig escapes or theft.
Treat your pigs against internal parasites (this becomes super important when they attain 125 pounds). This can done by adding medication in the feed or water, or by injecting the pig.
Well, all the treatment will not be necessary if the farmer had already dewormed his pigs before he bought them.
Starting a commercial pig farming business will require you to come up with a great piggery project business plan, following our complete guide to commercial pig farming in Nigeria and getting the right kind of knowledge and taking the right set of actions. The market for pigs will continue to grow as more people are beginning to take pig farming serious. Hope you enjoyed pig rearing for beginners? Feel free to share this post with your friends, like and subscribe….